Does The Quran Contain Contradictory Statements -winbook

Religion The Doctrine of Abrogation addresses the question of contradictions within the Quran. It states that an earlier statement carrying legal or divine authority is abrogated (erased) by a later contradictory statement which also carries legal or divine authority. Maulana Muhammad Ali .ments that some Islamic scholars place the number of abrogated verses in the Quran at five hundred.Other scholars, however, are more conservative, claiming a more correct number to be as few as twenty-one. Three passages in the Quran establish the doctrine: Whatever verse we may annul or cause thee to forget, we will bring a better one than it, or one like it; dost thou not know that God is mighty over all? (Q 2.106) God blots out what He will, or He confirms; and with Him is the Mother of the Book. (Q 13.39) We will make thee recite, and thou shall not forget, save what God pleases. (Q87.6-7) The point is that statements made in earlier surahs are subject to abrogation if statements in later surahsteach differing concepts. In this respect, the doctrine employs the logic of chronology and progressive revelation. Proof-texting(that is, lifting a verse out of its context and chronological setting and thereby building a doctrine from it) is particularly problematic. Controversial topicssuch as alcoholic beverages (wine), the nature of jihad, Muhammads view of Jews and Christiansmust be read in chronological order, since verses mentioned early in the Quran are not necessarily active in later surahs. The Doctrine of Abrogation has proved to be troublesome for Islamic scholarship.The problem is due to the fact that Muhammad insisted that the Quran isan eternal uncreated booka book with no beginning, guarded in Paradise by Allah (see Q 85.21-22). Hence, Islamic scholars are left with no easy explanations to justify erasures and corrections within the Quran. Two .mon responses arethe following: -Many Islamic scholars deny the doctrine altogether. When rightly interpreted, they insist, apparent contradictions are understood to be no contradictions whatsoever. -Other Islamic scholars argue against the notion of the Quran being an eternally uncreated book. The Quran could not be an eternal book without a beginning, asalleged, since the properties of change are necessarily connected to the properties of time. All such references in the Quran being an eternal document are therefore hyperbolesexaggerated speechand not to be taken literally. Moderate Islamic scholars lean towards the second response. Conservative Islamic scholars lean towards the first. CHRISTIAN RESPONSE The Doctrine of Abrogation demonstrates that the Quran is indeed a historical document. It was written in a specific time in history and within the interactions of a variety of cultures. Muhammad made changes to his developing theology due to changes in circumstances and his outlook on life. These changes affected specific teachings, such as his views on alcoholic beverages, Jihad, and Jews and Christians (see Q 2.106 and 13.39). Christians have a similar understanding of the Bible. It too is a historical document, written in history within the .peting interactions of differing cultures. God established covenants with His people in one historical moment that were later replaced or modified by other covenants in other historical moments. The Mosaic Covenant is a case in point. Established during the ministry of Moses, it was later replaced by the New Covenant (see Jer 31:30-34; Heb 8:13). In the Old Testament, a .mon teaching was that the blood of animals shed in ritual sacrifices provided divine forgiveness. In the New Testament, this teaching changed. It was the blood of Jesus Christ shed at the cross that provided divine forgiveness. The first was merely a prefiguring of the second (see Jn 1:17; Gal3:24-25; Heb 9:12-14). Since Christians do not believe that the Bible is an eternal uncreated document, they have no problem with the Doctrine of Abrogation. In the Bible, God spoke within the context of culture and history. He made changes to His covenants, according to His divine will. In the Old Testament, people were instructed to place their faith in the efficacious work of animal sacrifices which covered their sins. In the New Testament, people were instructed to place their faith in the efficacious work of Jesus Christ, who died on the cross for their sins. The Apostle Paul explained: Before this faith came, we were held prisoners by the law, locked up until faith should be revealed. So the law was put in charge to lead us to Christ that we might be justified by faith. Now that faith has .e, we are no longer under the supervision of the law (Gal 3:23-25). Moreover, the Bible is also understood to be a document with dual authorship ,wholly written by God and wholly written by man. John R. W. Stott writes, To say the Bible is the Word of God is true, but it is only a half-truth, even a dangerous half-truth. For the Bible is also a human word and witness…Thus God spoke and men spoke. Both statements are true, and neither contradicts theother.2 It is in the human dimension that we see the presence of history and culture most forcefully in the Bible. Yet, the presence of history and culture does not negate its divine inspiration or authority. Indeed, Christians explain, this is howGod always speaks to uswithin the context of history and culture. This does not imply cultural and historical relativism. To the contrary, it makes the case that God challenges our cultural and historical predilections with a divinely inspired understanding of culture and history. ________________________ 1 See Maulana Muhammad Ali, The Religion of Islam, pp. 32, 33. 2 John R. W. Stott, Culture and the Bible, p. 5. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: